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Mauger, D. and Anton, T.G.
2015; 32 pages.
The distribution of amphibians and reptiles in Will County, Illinois, was assessed using museum records and results from 58 surveys conducted between 1986 and 2009 on lands owned and managed by the Forest Preserve District of Will County (FPDWC) and Illinois Department of Natural Resources (IDNR).
Authors: Chick, J.H., Soeken-Gittinger, L.A., Ratcliff, E.N., Gittinger, E.J., Lubinski, B.J., Maher, R.
2013; 98 pages.
Prologue: A Decade of Monitoring
Since 1991, the Illinois Natural History Survey has operated the Great Rivers Field Station, one of six field stations associated with the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) of the Upper Mississippi River Restoration Environmental Management Program. This bulletin presents detailed findings for water quality and fish monitoring from 1994 to 2004 in Pool 26 of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) collected and analyzed by scientists at the Great Rivers Field Station. We present this information with the goals of 1) demonstrating the value of these data for management of the natural resources of the UMRS, 2) to serve as an easily accessible vehicle for persons searching for information on environmental conditions in this reach of the UMRS, and 3) to generate hypotheses and questions that can be addressed further in future analyses of LTRMP data and/or through focused research studies.
We hope that the findings we present will be useful to river scientists and managers, but we are also hopeful that nonscientists, such as nongovernmental organizations, decision makers, and the general public, will also find this work informative. With this in mind, we have limited ourselves to presenting only basic statistical analyses (e.g., graphs of central tendency and linear regression) with the exception of the last chapter. Long-term monitoring data for natural resources are rare and our understanding of the ecology of great rivers lags far behind most other ecosystems. Improving our management of these important natural resources will require more than the support of scientists and managers; society at large ultimately provides the funding necessary for these efforts and it needs to be informed so that they can judge the value and efficacy of programs such as the LTRMP. We hope that this bulletin will be informative to a wide audience.
Authors: Yetter, A.P., J.D. Stafford, C.S. Hine,
M.W. Bower, S.P. Havera, and M.M. Horath
2009; 38 pages.
The number of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) breeding in Illinois and eastern North America has increased in recent decades; however, few studies have investigated the nesting biology of Mallards outside primary production areas. Therefore, we radiomarked resident female Mallards (n = 148) in west-central Illinois during 1998–2003 to assess nesting parameters and evaluate recruitment. Mean initiation date for first nests ranged from 22 April to 6 May, and the majority (75%) of nests were initiated by 20 May. Therefore, the majority of nests were predicted to hatch by 24 June. The nesting season averaged 88 days (range: 77–103 days). The proportion of unsuccessful females that renested ranged from 50.0–85.7%, and adults were more likely to renest (75.0%) than yearlings (48.0%). Nest success ranged from 9.8–33.3% and was 19.6% overall; hen success was 28.3%. Initial brood size was 8.2 ± 0.3 ducklings, but brood size declined to 3.0 ± 0.6 ducklings by 17 days posthatch. Brood survival to 20 days was 0.759 ± 0.081, and 20-day duckling survival was 0.413 ± 0.035. Female survival during spring-summer ranged from 0.546–1.00 and averaged 0.710 ± 0.096. Likewise, estimated Mallard recruitment varied annually (range: 0.302–0.672 female ducklings/female). Assuming constant female and duckling survival, we estimated that a recruitment rate of 0.613 female ducklings/adult female was necessary to maintain a stable Mallard breeding population in west-central Illinois. Estimated Mallard reproduction and recruitment was similar to that observed in other areas of North America. Nest success and hen success approached or exceeded estimated thresholds for population stability in most years; however, hen success averaged over the study period was insufficient for local population maintenance and growth. Female survival was comparable to that observed in other studies but may have limited population growth in some years. Duckling survival was sufficient for population maintenance. Management designed to enhance hen success and brood habitat may augment Mallard recruitment in west-central Illinois.
Authors: Joan Esarey, David J. Soucek, Jeffrey M.
Levengood, Robert J. Hudson, Wade Wimer, Richard S.
2008; 18 pages.
Unionid mussels were collected from three mussel beds near the confluence of the Mississippi and Illinois rivers in 2003 to evaluate concentrations of selected elements and organic compounds in three abundant species and to preliminarily investigate the relative contribution of these waterways to observed contaminant burdens. Copper (Cu), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) concentrations were higher and lead (Pb) concentrations were lower in Amblema plicata collected downstream of the confluence than in those collected upstream. Mean concentrations of nickel (Ni), total mercury (Hg), methylmercury (MeHg), Pb, and Zn varied by species. Concentrations of cadmium (Cd) decreased with age in A. plicata from two of three sites. Tissue concentrations of some elements, e.g., arsenic (As), Cd, Cu, Pb, Se, and Zn, were similar to or higher than those previously reported for unionid mussels from areas of contaminated sediment. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn in A. plicata were comparable to those collected from the Mississippi River approximately 450 and 900 km upstream from our study sites (Naimo et al. 1992). Although total Hg concentrations we observed were an order of magnitude lower than in that study, MeHg concentrations were above those associated with reductions in soft tissue mass in a study of Elliptio complanata (Salazar et al. 1995). A number of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were detected in A. plicata tissues, with 85% of detections occurring in mussels from downstream of the confluence. Concentrations of individual PCB congeners were £33 ng/g ww and the maximum summed PCB congener concentration was 100.2 ng/g ww. Although few persistent pesticides were detected, b-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) was detected in each of the species collected from below the confluence of the two rivers, and in A. plicata collected above it on both the Mississippi and Illinois rivers, at a maximum concentration of 103.5 ng/g ww. Aldrin, d-HCH and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) were detected in few of the specimens collected. The findings of this preliminary investigation suggest that unionid mussels from near the confluence of the Mississippi and Illinois rivers may be at risk of negative health effects of elevated exposure to certain environmental contaminants. Studies examining the health and productivity of unionid mussels from this area appear warranted.
Authors: Larimore, Richard L., Phillippe, Loy R.,
Ebinger, John E.
2008; 20 pages.
Authors: Levengood, J.M., G.C. Sanderson, W.L.
Anderson, G.L. Foley, L.M. Skowron, P.W. Brown, and J.W.
Seets; T.E. Rice, ed.
1999; 36 pages.
We conducted a 30-day acute toxicity test of zinc (Zn) shot using 6- to 8-month-old wild-type game-farm Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), 40 of which (20 males and 20 females) were dosed with 6 No. 4 candidate shot pellets containing 98% Zn and 2% tin (Sn); the remaining 40 ducks were dosed with 6 No. 4 steel (Fe) shot and served as controls. The Zn shot resulted in high mortality, with a greater proportion of females dying than males. For the 30-day study, survival averaged 18 and 23 days for female and male Zn-dosed ducks, respectively; all Fe-dosed ducks survived to Day 30. Ataxia/paresis and other signs of intoxication were noted in a large portion of Zn-dosed ducks. For all ducks retaining 6 shot pellets, including those that survived < 30 days, shot retention, percent of the original shot weight dissolved, and dissolution rates were similar for Zn- and Fe-dosed ducks. For those ducks that retained 6 pellets and survived to Day 30, percent loss of the original shot weight and the dissolution rate were higher in Zn-dosed ducks.
INHS B35-03/04: Acute Toxicity of Ingested Bismuth Alloy Shot in Game-farm Mallards
Authors: Sanderson, Glen C.; Anderson, William L.; Foley, George L.; Skowron, Loretta M.; Brawn, Jeffrey D.; Seets, James W.
1997; 252 pages.
Author: Perry, R.S.
1971; 34 pages.
Since more research has been conducted on P. ultimum and R. solani than on T. basicola, the present research was originally designed to investigate some of the environmental factors affecting the growth of Thielaviopsis and the development of the root rot caused by it. However, another fungus, Chalaropsis thielavioides Peyronel, frequently was obtained in isolations from diseased greenhouse poinsettias. Since C. thielavioides had not been reported as being a part of the poinsettia root rot complex, the author decided to investigate its importance as a pathogen on poinsettias. Numerous similarities between C. thielavioides and T. basicola were evident. The object of this work was to compare the two fungi. Prior to undertaking such a study, the pathogenicity of Chalaropsis on poinsettias had to be established. A comparison of Chalaropsis and two isolates of Thielaviopsis was made to determine the effects of environment on the growth of the fungi and the ability of the two fungi to produce disease symptoms poinsettias.
Author: Hansen, D.F.
1966; 53 pages.
Various bass-bluegill stocking procedures employing fry or fingerlings, adult fish alone, or mixtures of adults and fingerlings have been evaluated by Serber (1949), Swingle (1951), and Smith, Kirkwood, & Hall (1955). In these studies, stocking success was measured in such terms as standing crops of young and adult fish, balance of bass and bluegills, or evidence of overpopulation of one or both species. The principal basis for evaluation of the stocking procedures at Lake Glendale was the quality of the hook-and-line fishing. Neither of the stocking procedures used in the present study was among those reported by other workers. The 1940 stocking rates for adult largemouth bass and bluegills were almost the same as the rates used by the Illinois Department of Natural Conservation when it provides adult fish for large publicly-owned waters. For this reason, the results of the present study have special significance in this state.
Author: Bennett, G.W.
1948; 35 pages.
The investigation of Fork Lake was originally planned to study the effect of heavy cropping upon the combination of largemouth bass and bluegills in a small artificial lake or pond. The results obtained were influenced by the unexpected spread of Potamogeton foliosus in this pond, and a proposed final fish census was rendered impossible by a washout of the dam in 1942.
Author: Brown, L.G. and L.E. Yeager
1943; 70 pages.
Author: Mohr, C.O.
Distributional information information and annual catch data derived from fur-takers' monthly reports are at hand for most of the trapping seasons beginning with 1929-30 and ending with 1939-40 and are here recorded, along with records of the number of licensed fur-takers and estimates of their catch. After being compared with findings of the oral survey, raw data reports were revised in such a way as to show better than heretofore how the value of the fur catch has stood from year to year. Data for the seasons of 1931-32, 1932-33 and 1933-34 were not available to the writer, and these seasons therefore could not be considered in this study.
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