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Circular 609 front cover Circular 610 Reservoir Characterization, Volumetric, and Three-Dimensional Geostatistical Modeling of the Grand Tower Limestone in Salem Field, Southern Illinois
The objectives of this study were to generate detailed 3-D geocellular models to characterize the porosity and water saturation trends, estimate the original hydrocarbon in place, and identify potential areas for future secondary and tertiary enhanced oil recovery plans. Wireline logs, well cuttings, and a limited number of core samples from neighboring fields were utilized to delineate two-dimensional and three-dimensional structural and stratigraphic frameworks of the reservoir. Khosravi, Mansour, 2023, 42 p. Print on demand.
Circular 609 front cover Circular 609 Summary of Long-Term Ground Water Monitoring at Lake in the Hills Fen Nature Preserver, McHenry County, Illinois
The Lake in the Hills Fen Nature Preserve in McHenry County, Illinois was dedicated as an Illinois nature preserve in 1990. The preserve supports rare plant species and diverse ecological communities, including calcareous fens. Since 1998, the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) and the Illinois State Water Survey (ISWS) have collected detailed geological, hydrological, and geochemical information to better understand groundwater conditions that support several fens within the preserve that are close to surface mining operations on adjacent property. The ISGS and ISWS groundwater monitoring program has been unique in several respects, including the frequency, breadth, and length of monitoring. This report summarizes the extensive hydrological, geological, and geochemical data collected over the past 22 years and includes a detailed assessment of hydrological and geochemical variations observed. Hongbo Shao, Randall A. Locke II, Eric T. Plankell, Jessica L. Monson, Lindsay A. Schafer, Lindsey, Abbas Iranmanesh, Bracken T. Wimmer, 2023, 72 p. Print on demand.
Circular 608 Guidelines for Designing Small-Scale Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Oil Recovery and Storage Pilot Projects


Circular 608, discusses the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium conducted four small-scale CO2 storage pilot projects-three enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and one enhanced coal bed methane (ECBM)- in the Illinois Basin Decatur Project. From these projects, guidelines were developed for site screening, selecting, and designing a CO2 storage research pilot that uses truck-delivered CO2, beginning with site selection and proceeding to the point of pilot start-up. Geologic and reservoir modeling was conducted for all selected sites by using existing data to predict CO2 EOR and storage and the behavior of injected and in situ gas, oil, and CO2. Scott M. Frailey, and Charles C. Monson, 2021, 28 p. Print on demand.

C607 Circular 607 Improving Whole Core Permeability Data from the Mt. Simon Reservoir at the Illinois Basin–Decatur Project
A commercial laboratory analyzed whole core Mt. Simon Sandstone samples. However, horizontal permeability was noticeably much lower than vertical permeability. This study was undertaken to understand the cause. It was hypothesized that the outer edge of the whole core was altered from the drilling mud. Therefore, plugs were drilled from the whole core to remove any rock altered from drilling mud. The permeability from these plugs showed that the horizontal permeability from the whole diameter core was incorrect. Correlations corrected the altered whole core horizontal permeability to the unaltered permeability from plugs. These correlations are also applicable to estimating vertical permeability from horizontal permeability in models. Martin Palkovic, and Scott Frailey, 2021, 38 p. Print on demand
C606 Circular 606 Subsurface Characterization, Monitoring, and Modeling of a Geothermal Exchange Borefield for the Campus Instructional Facility at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Circular 606 presents the work of geologists, hydrogeologists, and engineers at the ISGS and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign who designed and deployed a monitoring well to collect baseline geological, thermogeology, hydraulic, and mechanical property data used in the design of a geothermal exchange system for the new Campus Instructional Facility (CIF). This effort brought together a multi-disciplinary and multi-organizational team who were focused on advancing the application of geothermal energy technologies for district heating and cooling systems that allow energy end users to meet net carbon neutrality, renewable energy, and grid resilience goals. To meet CIF’s goal of exceeding the per-building metrics proposed in the 2020 Illinois Climate Action Plan (iCAP) the building designers turned to faculty, staff and students for their expertise in characterizing and monitoring the subsurface conditions under campus and understanding of thermal transport processes to develop ground-coupled static and dynamic models. From this research the energy system design was improved where the number of wells in the geothermal borefield could be significantly reduced that led to financial savings shortening the project payback period from 40 to 28 years. Andrew J. Stumpf, Yu-Feng Lin, and Timothy D. Stark, 2021, 35 p. Print on demand.
C605 Cover C605 Evolution of a Peat-Contemporaneous Channel: The Galatia Channel, Middle Pennsylvanian, of the Illinois Basin

Authors: W. John Nelson, Scott D. Elrick, William A. DiMichele, and Philip R. Ames, 2020. 85 p. + 6 plates. Print on Demand

For more than 40 years, geologists have understood that the thickness and quality of the Springfield Coal are intimately related to the Galatia channel, a paleochannel that existed contemporaneously with peat deposition. Early models envisioned a setting similar to the Mississippi delta, in which the river periodically breached its natural levees and carried crevasse splays of gray mud (Dykersburg Shale) into flanking peat swamps, shielding peat from a later influx of sulfur-bearing marine water and sediment. Using new findings and reinterpreting old maps, we present a new model for Galatia channel development. We interpret coal (peat) as having formed during glacial maxima, when the sea level was lowest and global cooling pinned the intertropical convergence zone near the equator. The resulting ever-wet climate in the tropics maintained the consistently high water table required for the production and preservation of peat. A warming cycle brought deglaciation, rapid sea-level rise, and a change to the seasonal wet–dry tropical climate, which in turn caused rapid drowning and burial of the peat deposit. The impact of the Galatia channel and its analogues on coal thickness and quality has been understood since the 1960s. Our new findings and model of origin for these channels provide insights into the driving forces behind sedimentary cycles overlooked by most previous authors.

Circular 604 cover C604 Mines in the Illinois Portion of the Illinois-Kentucky Fluorspar District

F. Brett Denny, W. John Nelson, Jeremy R. Breeden, and Ross C. Lillie

2020. 73 p. + 50 × 60 map. Print on Demand.

For most of the 20th century, the Illinois-Kentucky Fluorspar District (IKFD) was the primary source of fluorspar for the United States. The strategic importance of fluorspar was heightened during World War II because of the use of fluorspar in steel manufacturing. Production of fluorspar ore in this region peaked shortly after World War II and was sustained until the 1970s, when competition from foreign suppliers began to erode the dominance of this mineral district. Mining continued until the mid-1990s, but with a decline in production. This report compiles into a cohesive document details of the individual mines within the Illinois portion of the IKFD. Included are sections concerning the mining methods, geology, historical production, and theories of the origin of the ore deposits, as well as maps, exploration reports, drill logs, and production figures scanned from unpublished mining company files to which the ISGS was given access. The mine location map that accompanies this circular was designed to augment the Kentucky Geological Survey’s 2012 map of the Kentucky portion of the IKFD. Although the last mines in Illinois ceased operations in 1995, there is potential for future mining activities in deeper, relatively unexplored strata. The authors hope this report and the scanned documents will be helpful in future exploration activities and to other interested parties.

C603Coverthumbnail C603 User’s Manual for the Portable Thermal Response Test Device

Yu-Feng F. Lin, Chien-Yung Tseng, and Steve L. Sargent

2020. 11 p. Print on Demand

The thermal response test (TRT) is widely applied to determine geothermal properties, such as geothermal conductivity (k) and geothermal resistance (R). The TRT works on the principle that the mean temperature change caused by heated circulating water can be measured through the ground over time. The temperature response is due to heat transfer from the heated inflow to the borehole heat exchanger. This temperature response can provide us with an extrapolated prediction of the geothermal performance. This manual outlines a comprehensive workflow for operating the TRT device based on model analysis theory, and it illustrates a test case of TRT measurement. Our aim is to help future users of the TRT device learn to use the device to conduct a basic analysis of raw data from shallow geothermal heat exchange-related projects and to apply this test in both scientific research and educational programs.

“ISGS Circular 603 will be very helpful for students in my GEOL 380 (Environmental Geology) class to better understand the principles and practical methods used in ground source heat pumps and thermal response tests.”

—Stephen P. Altaner, Associate Professor and Associate Head of Geology, U of I

“The circular will be useful in the graduate ENG 571 class (Theory of Energy and Sustainability Engineering) as an introduction to the theory and modeling of geothermal loops.”

—John R. Abelson, Professor Emeritus. Materials Science and Engineering, U of I

C602-Coverthumbnail C602 Assessing the Cypress Sandstone for Carbon Dioxide-Enhanced Oil Recovery and Carbon Storage: Part II—Leveraging Geologic Characterization to Develop a Representative Geocellular Model for Noble Oil Field, Western Richland County, Illinois

Nathan D. Webb and Nathan P. Grigsby

2020. 26 p. Print on Demand

This research leveraged the geologic characterization of Assessing the Cypress Sandstone for Carbon Dioxide-Enhanced Oil Recovery and Carbon Storage: Part I—Reservoir Characterization of Noble Oil Field, Western Richland County, Illinois (Circular 601) to develop a geocellular model that represents the static reservoir properties (porosity and permeability) of the Cypress Sandstone at Noble Field in Richland County, Illinois. This model will be used to create hypothetical carbon dioxide-enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) injection simulations to determine whether, and under what conditions, the reservoir and its underlying residual oil zone (ROZ) could add to incremental oil production at the field. Geologic characterization played a key role in model development. It was necessary to clearly delineate the contact between the thick fluvial sandstone interval and the overlying shaley estuarine interval so that a geostatistical analysis could isolate and detect the anisotropy and transitional behavior within each element. In addition, this new understanding of the sedimentology and depositional environment provided context for inferring interwell characteristics and small-scale features that were believed to have a substantial impact on fluid flow without producing a strong signal on geophysical logs. Combining a model based on spontaneous potential logs with a model based on neutron-density porosity logs resulted in a model that properly represented the distribution of depositional (sandstone and shale) and digenetic (calcite cement) geologic features that control fluid flow.

C601-Coverthumbnail C601 Assessing the Cypress Sandstone for Carbon Dioxide-Enhanced Oil Recovery and Carbon Storage: Part I—Reservoir Characterization of Noble Oil Field, Western Richland County, Illinois

Nathan D. Webb and Nathan P. Grigsby

2020. 53 p. Print on Demand

This study focuses on the characterization of the Cypress Sandstone reservoir at Noble Field in Richland County, Illinois, which is the most productive oil field in the fluvial valley-fill facies of the Cypress in the Basin. Approximately half of the cumulative oil production from the field is attributed to the Cypress Sandstone (with the remainder attributed to commingled production from older formations). As part of the reservoir characterization, the geology of the Cypress Sandstone, its historical oil production, and the properties of the oil reservoir were examined. This contribution is part of a research project to assess the valley-fill Cypress for the presence of residual oil zones (ROZs) and the potential for nonconventional carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR), meaning CO2-EOR that includes geologic storage of CO2 as a significant component of the process. This study also provides the foundation for geocellular modeling (see Circular 602) and future reservoir simulations of nonconventional CO2-EOR within the Cypress Sandstone at Noble Field. Additionally, we have documented the process of using indirect indicators to identify a possible ROZ. This study provides a framework for characterizing the geological parameters relevant to improving oil production from and identifying ROZs in similar thick sandstone deposits elsewhere in the Basin.

C601 C602 Combo
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C600-Cover-thumbnail Circular 600 Geochemical Preservation of the Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) Event in Dolomites of the Furongian Franconia Formation in the Illinois Basin

Dana M. Labotka and Jared T. Freiburg

2020 11 p. Print on Demand

The Cambrian Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) is a well-documented global event that marked geochemical excursions in the world’s oceans and terrestrial environments. A core from the Franconia Formation, which lies on the southwestern edge of the Illinois Basin, appears to have captured the carbon-isotope excursion associated with the SPICE. In this section of the Illinois Basin, the SPICE is contained within the Sauk III sequence. Petrographic analysis revealed that the Franconia Formation transitioned from a shallow marine high-energy environment in the lower sections of the core toward a deltaic-influenced environment during a marine regression sequence as sea level lowered in the Furongian Epoch. Although extensive dolomitization has occurred, the δ13C values of the carbonate do not appear to have been significantly altered. The δ13C marine carbonate isotope values were able to track the SPICE closely, revealing a peak enrichment value of 4.9‰. Carbonate-associated sulfate δ34S values showed characteristic enrichment in 34S during the Furongian, but these values did not exhibit a notable trend. This study emphasizes the potential for isotope geochemical preservation in carbonates despite extensive dolomitization and identifies the timing and local environmental conditions capturing the SPICE.

C599-Cover-Thumbnail C599 Illinois Basin Decatur Project: Soil Carbon Dioxide Flux Monitoring
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Carl H. Carman, Curt S. Blakley, Christopher P. Korose, and Randall A. Locke II

2019 27 p. Print on Demand

This report summarizes the soil carbon dioxide flux measurements collected throughout the Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP), a geologic carbon storage project in Decatur, Illinois, that began injecting CO2 into the Mt. Simon Sandstone on November 17, 2011, and concluded on November 26, 2014. The monitoring, verification, and accounting program estimated soil CO2 fluxes at a network of 109 discrete monitoring locations within the IBDP study area weekly from June 2009 to June 2015 as part of an extensive monitoring program to ensure the safety of human health and the environment. The study used three distinct ring treatments to examine the effects of vegetation removal and ring insertion depth on the magnitude and variability of fluxes. More than seven years of monitoring produced a unique data set of nearly 13,000 discrete flux measurements, and simultaneous soil moisture and soil temperature measurements allowed researchers to examine the site-specific effects of coupled diurnal and annual temperature and soil moisture fluctuations. Nonparametric statistics and spatial analyses were used to evaluate fluxes at each location to determine whether CO2 injection had affected fluxes at the IBDP site. The results indicated that soil CO2 fluxes at the IBDP site were not affected by CO2 injection.

C598-Cover C598 Geologic Carbon Sequestration in the Illinois Basin: Numerical Modeling to Evaluate Potential Impacts
C 598

Edward Mehnert, James R. Damico, Nathan P. Grigsby, Charles C. Monson, Christopher G. Patterson, and Fang Yang 2019. 71 p. Print on Demand

The Illinois Basin is a globally significant saline reservoir for geologic carbon sequestration. To evaluate the feasibility of future, commercial-scale geologic carbon sequestration within the Illinois Basin, a basin-scale flow model was developed and refined as new geologic data from the Illinois Basin – Decatur Project became available. Because of the uncertainty of the geologic and petrophysical data needed to build a geologic carbon sequestration model at the basin scale, a series of six simulations were developed, which should be useful for developing basin-scale geologic carbon sequestration in the Illinois Basin or other open basins. These six solutions included a 50-year injection period, but the overall simulation periods varied from 83 to 5,000 years. Model results showed that a maximum of approximately 5 billion metric tons (5.5 billion tons, or 100 million metric tons [110 million tons] injected annually for 50 years) of CO2 could be injected safely and permanently into the Illinois Basin. Experts have predicted that a global carbon sequestration capacity of 92 billion tonnes (101 billion tons) will be needed to help stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Thus, the Mt. Simon Formation in the Illinois Basin could be a globally significant carbon sequestration reservoir if developed efficiently.

595 Cover Circular 597 Illinois Basin Decatur Project: Process Design and Operation of Carbon Dioxide Surface Facilities

Ray McKaskle, Rosalind Jones, Austyn Vance, Brad Piggott, Kevin Fisher, and Sallie Greenberg

2019. Print on Demand

The Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP) is a 1-million-tonne CO2 storage demonstration project led by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC), one of seven U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Regional Carbon Sequestra­tion Partnerships, and managed by the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. This report addresses the process design and operation of the CO2 surface facilities required to compress, dehydrate, and transport 1,102 ton/day (1,000 tonne/day) of CO2 to the injection well over the 3-year injection period after commissioning and startup in November 2011. Actual performance is compared with the original design, and a detailed breakdown of the costs is presented. The total fixed capital investment for the compression, dehydration, and transmission facilities was $20.3 million. The overall capital and operating costs for compression, dehydration, and injection of the CO2 were estimated at $28.53/ton ($31.45/tonne) injected, and electricity costs were estimated at 101.6 kWh/ton (112 kWh/tonne). These costs are reviewed and compared with what might be expected for a full-scale power plant application (approximately 10 times larger).

595 Cover Circular 595 Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture Options from Ethanol Plants

Ray McKaskle, Kevin Fisher, Paul Selz, and Yongqi Lu
2018. Print on Demand

The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium is leading a program to demonstrate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage, particularly in the Illinois Basin. One potential storage method uses CO2 for enhanced oil recovery by injecting it in producing oil reservoirs whose production rates have been diminished by conventional means (e.g., waterflooding). In 2005 and 2006, we evaluated capital and operating costs for the equipment required to capture, purify, and liquefy CO2 from ethanol plants in the Illinois area. Circular 595 updates these estimated capital and operating costs for 75 and 300 U.S. ton/day of CO2 and adds a larger 1,000 U.S. ton/day case. Costs are estimated to produce food and beverage grade CO2 as well as less purified CO2 suitable for enhanced oil recovery or storage for each facility size, and preliminary plant and equipment designs and major capital and operating cost estimates are provided for each of the recovery options. The availability of used equipment is also assessed.

C594.jpg Circular 594 The Future of Science of the Mahomet Aquifer

Steven E. Brown, Jason F. Thomason, and Kisa E. Mwakanyamale. 2018. 25 pp.

The Future of Science of the Mahomet Aquifer aims to show that the science of the Mahomet aquifer is a serious issue of public concern. To conserve this valuable water resource for present and future generations, we must accelerate scientific understanding of the aquifer by developing far-sighted strategies and implementing technologies that would reveal aquifer details broadly. Part 1 of this circular makes the argument that we still lack an adequate understanding of the complex geology and hydrogeology of the aquifer. Part 2 describes the results of a workshop hosted by the Prairie Research Institute on June 28, 2017, which brought together researchers and stakeholders to discuss, list, and consider the most relevant topics regarding groundwater in the aquifer. Part 3 lays out a bold path forward to gain a comprehensive understanding of the complex geology and hydrogeology of the aquifer: large-scale scientific mapping of the subsurface via helicopter-borne time domain electromagnetic geophysical surveying.


C589_map1_0.jpg Circular 589 Characterization of karst terrain and regional tectonics using remotely sensed data in Jo Daviess County, Illinois

Samuel V. Panno, Donald E. Luman, and Dennis R. Kolata 29 pp., large-scale map, and digital appendix

Jo Daviess County in northwestern Illinois is part of the Driftless Area, which includes portions of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa. Here, the soils and unconsolidated materials are relatively thin, and coupled with the highly fractured dolomite bedrock, create a geologic setting for a prolific karst aquifer within the region. During the extreme summer drought of 2012, mysterious vegetated lines began appearing in agricultural fields within Jo Daviess County. The presence of these vegetated crop lines was an ephemeral event lasting only a few months, and ISGS researchers responded quickly to document it. The results of on-site investigations and image interpretation of aerial photography acquired from June to October determined that the vegetated crop lines are an accurate reflection of the buried bedrock fracture system in northwestern Illinois, which had heretofore been restricted to direct observation in available road cuts, quarries, and bedrock outcrops. Digitized data sets of these vegetated crop lines can be used in conjunction with alignments of cover-collapse sinkholes and mine diggings to better characterize the geometry and character of the karst aquifer within the Driftless Area of northwestern Illinois, and to better understand the regional tectonics of Illinois and nearby states.

C588-Cover thumbnail_080717.jpg C588 Geochemical and Petrographic Analysis of the Sparks Hill Diatreme and Its Relationship to the Illinois-Kentucky Fluorspar District

F. Brett Denny, Anton H. Maria, Joseph L. Mulvaney-Norris, Renald N. Guillemette, Richard A. Cahill, Richard H. Fifarek, Jared T. Freiburg, and Warren H. Anderson, 2017, 51 pp. Print on Demand

Ultramafic and igneous intrusive rocks are present in southeastern Illinois and western Kentucky, coinciding with the Illinois-Kentucky Fluorite District. Considerable research of the fluorspar mineralization has been undertaken, but few modern analyses of the intrusives have been published. A confidential report detailing that microcrystalline aggregates of xenotime occur within fluorite beneath Hicks Dome in southeastern Illinois suggests that potential economic accumulations of rare earth (RE) minerals may be present in the region, possibly associated with the fluorspar mineralization. The Sparks Hill Diatreme is located about 5 miles (8 km) northeast of Hicks Dome. Electron microprobe analyses of drill core from Sparks Hill indicate that the RE minerals synchysite [Ca(Ce, La)(CO3)2F] and florencite [CeAl3(PO4)2(OH)6] are present, mainly as small aggregates of crystals along the boundaries of other minerals crystalizing in open spaces and fractures. Photographs of the various igneous textures of the Sparks Hill Diatreme along with RE plots are also provided in this report. This work expands on previous investigations of the Sparks Hill Diatreme and suggests that there is a relationship between the ultramafic igneous activity, fluorspar mineralization, and RE minerals. This research will be of interest to mineral collectors, economic geologists, and anyone interested in RE minerals or mineral exploration.

Circular-587-47th-Cover-Web.jpg C587 Proceedings of the 47th Forum on the Geology of Industrial Minerals


Zakaria Lasemi, editor, 2015, 181 pp.


This 47th Forum Proceedings includes 16 papers focusing on the geology of construction aggregates (crushed stone and sand and gravel), strategic rare earth elements (REE), geologic mapping, high-calcium limestone resources for desulfurization, and Mississippi Valley-Type lead-zinc deposits, among others. Noteworthy topics include the REE potential of the southern Illinois-western Kentucky Fluorite District, innovative methods for measuring and describing archeological specimens and inaccessible geological formations, a biogeochemical method of niobium-tantalum exploration, the utilization of a flue gas desulfurization and swine manure mixture as a potential fertilizer additive, a method for detecting contaminated drywall used after Hurricane Katrina, a review of warping marble in New Orleans cemeteries, a UK perspective on underground mining of crushed stone, a tool for calculating the transportation cost of construction aggregate, and an overview of the $1.5 billion industrial minerals industry in Illinois. 

C586-cover thumbnail.jpg C586 Karst of the Driftless Area of Jo Daviess County, Illinois

Samuel V. Panno, Donald E. Luman, Walton R. Kelly, Timothy H. Larson, and Steven J. Taylor  
39 pp., large-scale map  Print on Demand

Have you ever wondered about those cracks and crevices in road cuts as you travel across northwestern Illinois, and why this area has more topographic relief than most of the remaining area of the state? ISGS Circular 586 summarizes the geology of the Driftless Area of Jo Daviess County and provides an in-depth investigation of the karst features and groundwater quality of the area. The authors have investigated the fractures and crevices that are apparent in quarries, road cuts, and natural exposures, as well as the occurrence of sinkhole features throughout the county. They have also evaluated groundwater quality in wells and springs drilled into and discharging from the primary Galena Dolomite aquifer. From these data, preliminary estimates of background concentrations of selected ions have been determined to establish a baseline for assessing groundwater and surface water quality. This publication is an important resource for those involved with watershed planning, land use management, and natural resource protection. It is also an important educational resource.

C584-Cover thumbnail.jpg C584 Directory of Illinois Mineral Producers, and Maps of Extraction Sites

Xiaodong Miao, Zakaria Lasemi, Donald G. Mikulic, and Michael Falter, 2016, 51 pp.

This newly updated 2016 Directory of Illinois Mineral Producers provides a complete listing of companies involved in mining, processing, and manufacturing mineral products in Illinois. The revised Directory features current company information and locations gathered from the Illinois Office of Mines and Minerals, U.S. Geological Survey, Illinois Manufacturers Directory, Illinois Department of Transportation, Keystone Coal Industry Manual, Illinois Association of Aggregate Producers, and staff of the Illinois State Geological Survey. For ease of use, the Directory breaks down Illinois mineral producers alphabetically by county, company, and commodity. The commodities list contains detailed information on producers of clay and clay products, industrial sand, coal, peat, sand and gravel, sandstone, crushed stone (limestone and dolomite) and tripoli. Four large foldout maps at the end have been expanded to give precise locations of mineral resource extraction sites and coal mines throughout Illinois. Aggregate and coal industry personnel, landowners, and land-use planning agencies involved in the recovery and reclamation of these resources will find this directory an important resource.

Circular 572 cover Circular 572: Photographic History of Coal Mining Practices in Illinois
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By C. Chenoweth, Alan R. Meyers, and Jennifer M. Obrad.
2008. 178 pp.

The Illinois coal mining industry has been a vital part of the state’s economy since the 1860s. This report is an attempt to gather, publish, and preserve a large collection of historic photographs documenting the processes, equipment, and people integral to the coal mining industry. Many of these photographs record industry pride in new technologies, better equipment, and safer methods. By making these images more accessible to the public and providing text to make them understandable, the authors hope to preserve these intriguing photographs for present and future generations.

Circular 532 Potential for contamination of shallow aquifers in Illinois
Potential for contamination of shallow aquifers in Illinois, Author: Richard C. Berg, John P. Kempton, Keros Cartwright, 1984
Circular 490: Glacial Drift in Illinois: Thickness and Character

By Kemal Piskin and Robert E. Bergstrom
1975. 35 pp. Publication includes 2 plates.

Circular 460 Summary of the geology of the Chicago area
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